How do I cite an article that does not have page numbers?


Sometimes sources don't contain page numbers, especially online resources. If this is case, use paragraph numbers, if provided.

Example: (para. 7)

If neither page numbers nor paragraph numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph.

Example: (Methods section, para. 3)

If the heading title is long, use a short title enclosed in quotation marks.

Example from page 172 in the manual:

"Empirical studies have found mixed results on the efficacy of labels in educating consumers and changing consumption behavior" (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, "Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted," para. 4).

(The long heading was "Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted Information Gaps and Social Objectives.")

For more information, see p.171-172 - Direct Quotations of Online Materials without Pagination


All information and page number references are based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2009/10).